Role of elections in consolidating democracy

Unconsolidated democracies suffer from formalized but intermittent elections and clientelism.Some scholars think that the process by which a democracy becomes consolidated involves the creation and improvement of secondary institutions of the democracy.The Centre Party was represented in the German parliament until 1957.It exists as a marginal party, mainly based in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia.Democratic consolidation is the process by which a new democracy matures, in a way that means it is unlikely to revert to authoritarianism without an external shock.The notion is contested because it is not clear that there is anything substantive that happens to new democracies that secures their continuation beyond those factors that simply make it 'more likely' that they continue as democracies.In the following days, both Touré and coup leader Amadou Sanogo formally resigned; Tuareg rebels launched a major offensive against Mali's security forces and military in a bid to seize the northern town of Kidal on 6 February 2012.Some loyalist Tuareg fled to the city of Bamako, fearing reprisals after violent demonstrations in the first week of February.

They are thus highly likely to be overemphasised by the international community, which has often regarded them as the benchmark point for its exit strategy from a peacebuilding effort - getting out before international politics moves on to the next great cause and before domestic political and financial pressures grow to declare victory and go home.The coup was followed by "unanimous" international condemnation, harsh sanctions by Mali's neighbors, and the swift loss of northern Mali to Tuareg forces, leading Reuters to describe the coup as "a spectacular own-goal".On 6 April, the junta agreed with Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) negotiators that they would step down from power in return for the end of sanctions, giving power to a transitional government led by parliament speaker Dioncounda Traoré.The Tuareg rebels had been bolstered by an influx of battle-hardened fighters from Libya.Islamist Ansar Dine demanded the imposition of Islamic law in northern Mali, while the secular Tuareg nationalist Azawad National Liberation Movement (MNLA) have stated they want an autonomous, if not completely independent, homeland.

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