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The Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) has been widely used.

This study was designed to examine the psychometric properties and the theoretical structure of the JSPE. The 20 item JSPE provides a valid and reliable scale to measure empathy among not only undergraduate and graduate medical education programmes, but also practising doctors.

The JSPE enables medical educators to "evaluate the effectiveness of educational interventions aimed at promoting empathy".

It can also be used to examine the variation and correlation of empathy in different years of medical education and between genders [].

Critics assert, for example, that many DSM-5 revisions or additions lack empirical support; inter-rater reliability is low for many disorders; several sections contain poorly written, confusing, or contradictory information; and the psychiatric drug industry unduly influenced the manual's content.

Treatment recommendations, as well as payment by health care providers, are often determined by DSM classifications, so the appearance of a new version has significant practical importance.

The DSM-5 was published on May 18, 2013, superseding the DSM-IV-TR, which was published in 2000.

Empathy towards patients is considered to be associated with improved health outcomes.

Many scales have been developed to measure empathy in health care professionals and students.

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